By Matthew A. Crenson
This e-book examines the relationship among the decline of the orphanage and the increase of welfare. Matthew Crenson argues that the prehistory of the welfare procedure was once performed out now not at the degree of nationwide politics or category clash yet within the micropolitics of institutional administration. New preparations for baby welfare coverage emerged progressively as superintendents, vacationing brokers, and charity officers replied to the problems that they encountered in working orphanages or growing structures that served as choices to institutional care. Crenson additionally follows the decades-long debate in regards to the relative advantages of relatives care or institutional take care of based kids. Leaving bad youngsters at domestic with their moms emerged because the most widely appropriate replacement to the orphanage, in addition to an bold new perception of social reform. rather than sheltering susceptible young ones in associations designed to rework them into virtuous electorate, the reformers of the revolutionary period attempted to combine negative kids into the bigger society, whereas holding them from its perils.
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Additional resources for Building the Invisible Orphanage: A Prehistory of the American Welfare System
But discipline was just as clearly one of the animating impulses in the creation of the orphan asylums that Progressives sought to dismantle. By itself, therefore, the social control perspective does not carry us far toward an understanding of how the nineteenth-century regime of the asylum became the Progressive regime of social welfare policy. More vital to this inquiry than the ubiquitous fact of social control are the kinds of institutions through which it was exercised. 14 Two kinds of interests or purposes dominated the evolution of the orphan asylum and its disaggregation.
It was, after all, a motherhood issue. The incessant invocation of home and motherhood at the White House Conference celebrated a unity achieved after more than a half-century of interdenominational wrangling. A coalition was forming. Years afterward, Jane Addams recalled a moment at the conference when she and other speakers were waiting to ﬁle onto the platform. She overheard Homer Folks, the presiding ofﬁcer at the time, muttering to himself: “Are we all here? Yes, here is my Catholic speaker, my Jewish speaker, the Protestant, the colored man, and the woman.
He was also president of the National Children’s Home Society, an organization that led the movement to provide foster homes for children as an alternative to orphanage care. Henderson commended charitable assistance for destitute single mothers as a way of helping them to preserve family homes for children. But private charity, he said, was not sufﬁcient. It did not respond to the root causes of “domestic ruin” that left single mothers destitute—disease and accident. ” By shifting the costs of industrial accidents and disease to employers, social insurance could induce these employers to take an interest in workplace safety and health.
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