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3 Insect Resistance to Formulated Products Based on Bt toxins Because different strains of B. thuringiensis produce different toxins with different modes of action, there was little expectation of the selection of resistant insects. , 1993). , 1997; Castelo Branco and Gatehouse, 2001). Values for the medium lethal concentration (LC50) of B. t. subspp. kurstaki (Btk) and aizawai (Bta) against field populations of P. 2 times higher than those obtained with a susceptible control population (Perez and Shelton, 1997).

Despite this situation, in the period 2011/12, many farmers in Brazil started to adopt the use of a tank mixture of Bt and chemical insecticides to control Lepidoptera in conventional crops; according to reports from these producers, the mixing increased the effectiveness of the application. With the adoption of this technique, the area treated with Bt-based bioproducts reached close to 2 million ha. , 2013); this allowed the registration on an emergency basis of various chemical and biological agents, among them some Bt bioproducts.

G. (2001) Identification of a gene associated with Bt resistance in Heliothis virescens. Science 293, 857–860. , Wu, K. and Gould, F. (2009) Frequency of Bt resistance alleles in H. armigera during 2006–2008 in northern China. Environmental Entomology 38, 1336–1342. , Feng, H. and Wu, K. (2010) Regulation of the seasonal population patterns of Helicoverpa armigera moths by Bt cotton planting. Transgenic Research 19, 557–562. C. D. (2005) New resistance mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera threatens transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

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