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By Kitchin, Christopher R

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This permits the almost simultaneous observation of the object and the sky background through the same light path by a combination of moving the telescope slightly (the nod) Detectors ◾ 27 and the charge packets within the CCD (the shuffle). 5-metre telescope uses four thousand and ninety-six 512 × 512 pixel OTCCDs to cover its 1 degree-square field of view. 07 giga-pixels in total. 3) and CCD, known as an electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD), electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD)† or an intensified CCD (ICCD)‡ may be used.

13, the electron charge is moved from electrode B to electrode C. 9999%. Furthermore, we may obviously continue to move the charge through * Unless anti-blooming is used – see later in this chapter – the electron charge is linearly related to the optical intensity, at least until the number of electrons approaches the maximum number that the electrode can hold (known as the well capacity). 11 Array of CCD basic units. 12 Active electron charge trapping in a CCD. the structure to electrodes D, E, F etc.

From there they may more easily be excited into the conduction band by thermal motions or other energy sources. The semiconductor is then an n-type since any current within it will largely be carried by the (negative) electrons in the conduction band. 72 eV, respectively. 12 ◾ Astrophysical Techniques In the other case, when an atom is replaced with one that has fewer valence electrons (an acceptor atom), new, empty levels will be formed just above the top of the valence band. Electrons from the valence band can easily be excited into these new levels leaving energy gaps in the valence band.

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