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By G. David Garson

The concepts of analytic mapping and of geographic info structures (GIS) became more and more very important instruments for interpreting census, crime, environmental and purchaser info. The authors of this crucial quantity speak about facts entry, transformation and training matters, and the way to choose the fitting analytic snap shots strategies via a evaluate of assorted GIS and customary info resources, reminiscent of census items, TIGER documents, and CD-ROM entry. They describe every one approach, assessment its assumptions and necessities and supply illustrative output for pattern information utilizing chosen software program. Researchers and directors who have to deal with information of geographic destinations will locate this publication an invaluable advisor to platforms for storing, retrieving,

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A map scale is the ratio between map distance and real distance, where the map distance is usually represented as 1. 6 miles. One of the advantages of vector mapping is that display to any scale can be done automatically, so that small features can be shown in greater scale than large features on different maps. A large-scale map is one with a smaller term in the denominator of the ratio. For instance, 1:10,000 maps are large scale compared with 1:1,000,000maps. Coordinates are normally those based on the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), but sometimes with older data one may find coordinates based on the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27).

Because the ID field is often a code with little if any meaning to the user, attribute files usually contain a field that is considered the primary name field. For a database of addresses, this could be people's names. A secondary name field is sometimes used as well to clarify possible ties on the primary field. The GIS usually will create an attribute index automatically, ordering the attributes according to their feature IDs from the geographic file. There may also be an attribute field setting file containing the labels (names), descriptions, and structure information (if data are numeric or character, for instance) data on each attribute.

Can other, nongeographic factors be incorporated into the examination of this relationship? What about the changes over time observed as similar maps are constructed from prior elections? To answer all these questions, Professor White must somehow gather, store, present, and analyze these electoral geography data. Because such work has in the past involved intensive hand labor, it has been shunned by modern quantitative political scientists. Fortunately, this monograph by Garson and Biggs shows how these traditional difficulties can be overcome.

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