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By Rudolf Carnap and Yeshoua Bar-Hillel

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Following this usage, we may not only say that the system of sounds coming out of a telephone receiver is a distortion through noise of the systems of sounds coming out of the mouth of the speaker and that the system of symbol printings at the output of a teletypewriter is a distortion of the system of symbol printings at the input, but also that the system of positions of a thermometer at a certain time is a distortion of the system of the temperature situations at those times (for somebody who is interested in the temperatures), that the system of weather predictions of a certain weather bureau is a distortion of the system of weather situations at the times for which the predictions are made (for somebody who is interested in the weather), and that the system of IQ-test results is a distortion of the system of intelligence characteristics (for somebody interested in these characteristics).

Tll-8. For fixed n, est(inf, H i , e) is a minimum for those H i one member of which has the c-value 1 on e (and hence all the other members have the c-value 0 on e). Hence mini[est(inf, Hi, e)]= 0. An expression analogous to ' - E c(hp, e) x Log c(hp, e)' but with degree of confirmation replaced by (statistical) probability, plays a central role in communication theory, as well as in certain formulations of statistical mechanics, where the probability concerned is that of a system being in cell p of its phase space.

6438 10 3. 3219 48 5. 0000 49 5. 9657 32 5. 0000 50 5. 0443 51 5. 9772 34 5. 0874 52 5. 9829 35 5. 1292 53 5. 2479 56 5. 9657 Let the E in our m E. 2 3 be E, E E4 m Let C Log m be the conjunction of the first Then contD(Cm) = m/64 (T2a) and infD(Cm) = 6 - Log(64-m) (T3b). Table V gives the values of the absolute and relative contD for the first six values of m and for the last six values of m. We see from this that if a series of messages is received, each being an E, contD grows by every one of these messages by the same amount, from 0 to 1.

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