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By Grant E. Isaac

Genetically changed (GM) agricultural vegetation that are authorized as secure in North the United States (Canada and the U.S.) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in getting access to the ecu Union. the advance and commercialization of GM vegetation illustrate a fancy problem dealing with exchange international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created by way of social regulatory obstacles.

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Extra resources for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)

Example text

In transgenic modification, DNA is actually transferred between organisms. Sequences of DNA are isolated in an organism, using techniques of molecular markers, and are cut from an organism using restriction enzymes. These enzymes recognize certain sequences of DNA according to their nitrogenous bases. Once the pieces of DNA are cut from an organism, they must then be pasted into the DNA of another organism. There are three techniques for importing and pasting specific pieces of DNA (Fincham and Ravetz, 1991).

That is, social regulatory barriers should be subject to an economic interpretation of efficiency, they should have a minimum trade impact and trade diplomacy should avoid considering social arguments justifying the trade barriers (the integration strategy of the WTO will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 3). This regulatory integration approach supported by the economic perspective is one of regulatory competition associated with the ‘freetraders’ school of trade theory (Bhagwati and Hudec, 1996; van Scherpenberg and Thiel, 1998).

Underlying this theory were two important assumptions. First, it was assumed that policymakers are aware of all economic and social preferences through the political process and could design first-best regulatory policies, producing optimal outcomes. Secondly, it was assumed that government policy-makers are benevolent agents whose primary goal is the improvement of national welfare and that no other objectives obfuscate this goal. These two assumptions did not go unchallenged. Public-choice theory challenged the ability of policy-makers to be aware of all economic and social preferences.

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