Download Addiction: A Reference Encyclopedia by Howard Padwa PDF

By Howard Padwa

Habit: A Reference Encyclopedia bargains directly speak and transparent solutions on a subject matter usually sensationalized within the media and politicized in the course of campaigns. Drawing from a wide selection of resources, it offers readers with a concise but thorough evaluation of what we all know approximately every kind of addictive behavior.Addiction surveys either the technological know-how of dependancy and its heritage within the usa with major sections: a story of the historical past of habit as a systematic and public coverage factor within the usa through a chain of alphabetically prepared entries all for enterprises, members, and occasions that experience impacted our pondering habit. a lot of the paintings specializes in substance abuse—alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cocaine—but the publication additionally examines behaviors that experience just recently been famous as in all likelihood addictive, together with playing, sexual intercourse, net utilization, and extra.

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These drugs are chemically similar to the chemicals that the body naturally produces to limit feelings of pain, thus making the drugs extremely effective painkillers. When feeling the psychoactive effects of opiates and opioids, individuals experience positive changes in mood, euphoria, a sense of relaxation, and clouded mental functioning since the drugs tend to slow CNS activity. In higher doses, they can cause drowsiness, confusion, slurred speech, and hallucinations. Often, people who have taken high doses of the drugs will nod off into a dream-filled sleep for a few minutes.

While most of these effects come from the nicotine in tobacco, other chemicals present in tobacco smoke can be addictive as well. In particular, acetaldehyde is known by researchers to contribute to the addictiveness of tobacco. When the effects of the drug wear off, tobacco users become irritable, have trouble sleeping, have increased appetites, and experience headaches and fatigue. A fresh dose of tobacco relieves these symptoms, thus making the substance very habit forming, and regular tobacco users try to maintain a steady level of the drug in their bloodstream.

Some people suffer from gastrointestinal problems after prolonged cocaine use, while others develop psychotic symptoms and other mental problems caused by Reference Essay | dramatically altered dopamine levels. To make matters worse, because the drug is usually obtained illegally, cocaine is often adulterated or ‘‘cut’’ with other substances to make drug users think they are buying more of the drug than they actually are. On average, the cocaine sold on the street is only 60% actual cocaine, as it is usually mixed with other white powders such as baby laxatives, lactose, aspirin, sugar, flour, or baking soda.

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