By Mel Thompson
The 3rd version of moral conception has been up to date in accordance with the revised a degree specification specifications. It offers a vital historical past to moral matters via giving an overview of significant moral theories and the way those could be utilized to various modern ethical concerns. the recent variation combines all of the strengths of the second one version with a brand new layout and lines to make the content material extra obtainable to all scholars to be able to strengthen their figuring out of the subject. New positive factors contain: - Key questions in the course of the chapters to aid scholars specialize in the foremost concerns - key phrases outlined and defined during the chapters - Profiles of key contributors - their contribution and value - extra precis diagrams all through to assist revision - images and illustrations - Revision checklists on the finish of chapters - New exam-style questions and guidance on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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If we are ‘inventing’ right and wrong, why are we doing it? What does humankind have to gain from having developed a sense of conscience? It would seem that at some point ethics needs to be based on something other than itself. Morality remains a phenomenon which needs some explanation. The first is ‘nihilism’. The second is that, if moral language simply refers to our present emotions or prescriptions, it is difficult to see how moral progress could be possible. Traditional theories are more concerned with finding a basis for morality in experience, in emotions or in the way in which our minds work, than with the meaning of ethical language.
In the same way, we know what ‘good’ means, but cannot define it. Key questions Starting from the indefinable ‘good’, Moore’s book raises two basic questions: ● ● What things should exist for their own sake? His answer: those that we call intrinsically good. What actions ought we to perform? His answer: those that produce most good. Now, in contrast to metaphysical ethics, this approach does not depend on any abstract concepts about the world as a whole. On the other hand, ‘good’ is not simply a word we choose to apply to objects, but is the name of a quality that inheres in things.
On the other hand, moral statements are rather more than commands. A command is simply a request to do a particular thing at a particular moment, whereas a moral statement is making a more general suggestion about what action should be taken. In other words, a moral statement is both prescriptive and also universalisable: suggesting what everyone should do in the circumstances. Hare believed that, in this way, it was possible to apply reason and logic to matters of value. 42 ETHICAL THEORY Key word Prescriptivism: the view that ethical statements prescribe a course of action.
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