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By Norbert Hornstein

Human language turns out to have arisen approximately in the final 50-100,000 years. In evolutionary phrases, this can be the mere blink of an eye fixed. If this is often right, then a lot of what we ponder certain to language needs to in truth contain operations on hand in pre-linguistic cognitive domain names. during this e-book Norbert Hornstein, some of the most influential linguists engaged on syntax, discusses a topical set of matters in syntactic conception, together with a couple of unique proposals on the leading edge of analysis during this quarter. He offers a conception of the elemental grammatical operations and means that there's just one that's specified to language. If this thought is right then this narrows the evolutionary hole among verbal and non-verbal primates, hence facilitating the speedy evolutionary emergence of our linguistic means.

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Note, no counting here. If we assume that grammars compare path lengths by computing the subset relations among the various paths, then we can deduce that minimality is constrained by c-command. Let’s see how. The relation between c-command and path length becomes clear if we consider one more case and compare it with the one just discussed. Say that we had a structure like (32c). (32c) [CP C0 [TP [DP . Wh2] T0 [vP t1 [VP V Wh1]]]] Now compute the paths of Wh1 and Wh2 to C0 . P(Wh1) = {VP, vP, TP, CP}.

It appears that a case can be made in either direction and this suggests that perhaps either is an option. g. v satisfies a requirement of VP, and T of vP, while the opposite is true in Japanese. If we assume this, then in English v merges with VP and so precedes it. In transitive clauses, the reason that the verb precedes the object is that V raises to v in overt syntax. As the lower copy is deleted, the verb will precede the object. Note too that the subject will precede the TP of which it is the Spec as it checks agreement (and maybe case) on the finite T when moving to its Spec.

D. e. f. merge: [John self] merge: [educate [John self]] copy John and merge (sidewards movement): [John book] merge: [[John book] [educate [John self]]] Finish derivation in usual way to check case etc. Delete non-case marked residues and add pronoun to reflexive morpheme: [[John book] T [John book [educate [John-self]]]] With this derivation John becomes the antecedent for the reflexive though it does not c-command it. It is another illustration of the possibility of binding without c-command which is expected if reflexives are formed by movement and if sidewards movement is a grammatical option (cf.

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