Download A Theory of Human Need by Len Doyal PDF

By Len Doyal

Rejecting stylish subjectivist and cultural relativist ways, this significant ebook argues that humans have common and aim wishes for future health and autonomy and a correct to their optimum pride. The authors improve a procedure of social signs to teach what such optimization could suggest in perform and verify the files of quite a lot of constructed and underdeveloped economies in assembly their electorate' wishes

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If these arguments are accepted, then, as in the case of anti-racism, 'group relativism' is the result, this time parading in the guise of an essentialism geared to gender. Only women can ever know what they need in a male-dominated world. 4 Indeed, scientific knowledge itself can be viewed as just another manifestation of culture - no more than a reflection of the 'social relations' within which it evolves. This would mean that all attempts scientifically to determine the nature of human need also fall into this category.

153-9). Not to try to satisfy needs will thus be seen to be against the objective interests of the individuals involved and viewed as abnormal and unnatural. l When goals are described as 'wants' rather than needs, it is precisely because they are not believed to be linked to human interests in this sense. All need statements conform to the relational structure: 'A needs X in order to Y' (Barry, 1965, Section 5 A). Here whether or not X is a need concerns not universality but its strategic efficacy for achieving some specified goal Y, whatever it happens to be.

Stanley and Wise (1983, p. 117) maintain, for example, that 'women's experiences constitute a different view of reality, an entirely different 16 Relativism and the Problem of Human Need ontology or way of going about making sense of the world'. If these arguments are accepted, then, as in the case of anti-racism, 'group relativism' is the result, this time parading in the guise of an essentialism geared to gender. Only women can ever know what they need in a male-dominated world. 4 Indeed, scientific knowledge itself can be viewed as just another manifestation of culture - no more than a reflection of the 'social relations' within which it evolves.

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