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Additional info for A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental

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Isacenko (1965) applied this approach to Russian, and identified many of the primary and secondary functions of the cases of that language. His work is, however, hardly an exhaustive treatment of Russian according to this model, and also contains many insights not derivable from this distinction. DeGroot (1965) makes use of the same distinction and gives an equally generalized account. Deserieva (1974) tallies up all of the semantic and syntactic uses of each case in Russian and then puts these values in a formula by means of which she arrives at figures describing the abstractness of each case.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Instrument Object in Action Sentences Body Part Object in Reflexive Action Sentences Emotions Inexplicable Force Agent in Passive Sentences Matter in Action Sentences Matter in Process Sentences Comparison Manner Space Time Duration Transport Personal Characteristics Predicate Figure 7. Wierzbicka's network 36 Although Deserieva (1974 & 1977) also fails to provide networks for cases, her discussion of them as "semantic fields" is even more suggestive of this sort of structure.

Smith uses the schema shown in Figure 4 to represent the dative verbs, in which the dotted lines symbolize an unspecifed implied unspecified implied action Figure 4. Finally, Smith discusses the dative used in impersonal constructions, as in (5). nom dat Figure 5. ' ist is mir me-DAT kall. cold He proposes that "we can conceive of the abstract force [here, coldness - LAJ] as exerting an effect on the dative [entity] which in turn causes an internal physical reaction within the [dative entity]" (Smith 1985: 396).

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